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Direction(1 - 10):Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The chaos and cacophony of elections is the surest sign of a vibrant democracy. What role do opinion and exit polls play in this democratic process? A non-partisan debate on this issue must underscore the qualitative difference between opinion polls and exit polls and the differing impact each has on the democratic process. Opinion polls are sample surveys, reporting statistical results of potential future behaviour by voters who answer certain questions. An opinion poll is always conducted before a voter has exercised his franchise, usually several days or weeks before voting. It usually asks more than one question. An exit poll is conducted upon a voter who has already voted. It involves no questions and seeks to report how a voter has voted.
Keeping this difference in mind, there are several reasons for banning exit polls and an arguable, though weaker, case for banning opinion polls. Democracy is the bedrock of our nation and of the Constitution. A republican secular democratic nation has been held by the apex court to be part of the basic structure of the Constitution. Free and fair elections have also been held judicially to be part of this basic structure. This means free and fair polls are an unamendable, inalienable feature of our Constitution.
In turn, free and fair elections necessitate a level playing field where the contestants and voters are not subjected to unfair external influences which vitiate the process of elections. The Representation of People Act (RPA) and the Model Code of Conduct, along with several other rules, are all designed to ensure this essential fairness in the electoral process.
In a multi - phased electoral contest - and the exit polls ban argument is relevant only in multi - phased polls - the exit poll results of a prior poll have a direct impact on the next poll. For example, the present polls are scheduled for April 20, 26, May 5 and 10. An exit poll publication for April 20 suggesting heavy voting for Party A is bound to create an overall ambience of victory in favour of that party. Such predeclaration of exit poll results often leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Party A may have strong support in the April 20 polls but may normally be a miserable loser in all the next three phases. However, an ambience in its favour qua the April 20 polls may generate a 'herd instinct' or 'bandwagon effect' amid voters to follow the likely 'winner' of the first phase.
This may itself not be pernicious if the April 20 exit poll results reflected the complete reality. But exit poll results are based on fractional samples, generalising from 'miniaturised reality'. Since they do not even claim to represent the whole truth, their impact on future polls is bound to distort the electoral process. Vitiation of democracy and violation of the basic structure is a likely consequence.
Opinion polls are worse because they generalise not from actual behaviour but from presumed and predicted behaviour. The fractional size of the sample (e.g. 40,000 in an Indian electorate of 60 crore) underlines its inherent inadequacy. Many surveys thrive on much smaller sample sizes! Second, the sample can't be truly representative, especially in a humungous and heterogeneous society like India. Third, opinion polls are conducted well before the polls and their remoteness in time affects their predictive utility. Several recent polls have quoted widely divergent figures and this reflects their untenability. Nevertheless, they inexorably influence the voter and create an uneven playing field.
Question - 1.
What does the author mean when he says that "chaos and cacophony of elections is the surest sign of a vibrant democracy"?
Direction(1 - 10):Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The chaos and cacophony of elections is the surest sign of a vibrant democracy. What role do opinion and exit polls play in this democratic process? A non-partisan debate on this issue must underscore the qualitative difference between opinion polls and exit polls and the differing impact each has on the democratic process. Opinion polls are sample surveys, reporting statistical results of potential future behaviour by voters who answer certain questions. An opinion poll is always conducted before a voter has exercised his franchise, usually several days or weeks before voting. It usually asks more than one question. An exit poll is conducted upon a voter who has already voted. It involves no questions and seeks to report how a voter has voted.
Keeping this difference in mind, there are several reasons for banning exit polls and an arguable, though weaker, case for banning opinion polls. Democracy is the bedrock of our nation and of the Constitution. A republican secular democratic nation has been held by the apex court to be part of the basic structure of the Constitution. Free and fair elections have also been held judicially to be part of this basic structure. This means free and fair polls are an unamendable, inalienable feature of our Constitution.
In turn, free and fair elections necessitate a level playing field where the contestants and voters are not subjected to unfair external influences which vitiate the process of elections. The Representation of People Act (RPA) and the Model Code of Conduct, along with several other rules, are all designed to ensure this essential fairness in the electoral process.
In a multi - phased electoral contest - and the exit polls ban argument is relevant only in multi - phased polls - the exit poll results of a prior poll have a direct impact on the next poll. For example, the present polls are scheduled for April 20, 26, May 5 and 10. An exit poll publication for April 20 suggesting heavy voting for Party A is bound to create an overall ambience of victory in favour of that party. Such predeclaration of exit poll results often leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Party A may have strong support in the April 20 polls but may normally be a miserable loser in all the next three phases. However, an ambience in its favour qua the April 20 polls may generate a 'herd instinct' or 'bandwagon effect' amid voters to follow the likely 'winner' of the first phase.
This may itself not be pernicious if the April 20 exit poll results reflected the complete reality. But exit poll results are based on fractional samples, generalising from 'miniaturised reality'. Since they do not even claim to represent the whole truth, their impact on future polls is bound to distort the electoral process. Vitiation of democracy and violation of the basic structure is a likely consequence.
Opinion polls are worse because they generalise not from actual behaviour but from presumed and predicted behaviour. The fractional size of the sample (e.g. 40,000 in an Indian electorate of 60 crore) underlines its inherent inadequacy. Many surveys thrive on much smaller sample sizes! Second, the sample can't be truly representative, especially in a humungous and heterogeneous society like India. Third, opinion polls are conducted well before the polls and their remoteness in time affects their predictive utility. Several recent polls have quoted widely divergent figures and this reflects their untenability. Nevertheless, they inexorably influence the voter and create an uneven playing field.
Question - 2.
Which of the following best describes the "opinion poll"?
Direction(1 - 10):Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The chaos and cacophony of elections is the surest sign of a vibrant democracy. What role do opinion and exit polls play in this democratic process? A non-partisan debate on this issue must underscore the qualitative difference between opinion polls and exit polls and the differing impact each has on the democratic process. Opinion polls are sample surveys, reporting statistical results of potential future behaviour by voters who answer certain questions. An opinion poll is always conducted before a voter has exercised his franchise, usually several days or weeks before voting. It usually asks more than one question. An exit poll is conducted upon a voter who has already voted. It involves no questions and seeks to report how a voter has voted.
Keeping this difference in mind, there are several reasons for banning exit polls and an arguable, though weaker, case for banning opinion polls. Democracy is the bedrock of our nation and of the Constitution. A republican secular democratic nation has been held by the apex court to be part of the basic structure of the Constitution. Free and fair elections have also been held judicially to be part of this basic structure. This means free and fair polls are an unamendable, inalienable feature of our Constitution.
In turn, free and fair elections necessitate a level playing field where the contestants and voters are not subjected to unfair external influences which vitiate the process of elections. The Representation of People Act (RPA) and the Model Code of Conduct, along with several other rules, are all designed to ensure this essential fairness in the electoral process.
In a multi - phased electoral contest - and the exit polls ban argument is relevant only in multi - phased polls - the exit poll results of a prior poll have a direct impact on the next poll. For example, the present polls are scheduled for April 20, 26, May 5 and 10. An exit poll publication for April 20 suggesting heavy voting for Party A is bound to create an overall ambience of victory in favour of that party. Such predeclaration of exit poll results often leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Party A may have strong support in the April 20 polls but may normally be a miserable loser in all the next three phases. However, an ambience in its favour qua the April 20 polls may generate a 'herd instinct' or 'bandwagon effect' amid voters to follow the likely 'winner' of the first phase.
This may itself not be pernicious if the April 20 exit poll results reflected the complete reality. But exit poll results are based on fractional samples, generalising from 'miniaturised reality'. Since they do not even claim to represent the whole truth, their impact on future polls is bound to distort the electoral process. Vitiation of democracy and violation of the basic structure is a likely consequence.
Opinion polls are worse because they generalise not from actual behaviour but from presumed and predicted behaviour. The fractional size of the sample (e.g. 40,000 in an Indian electorate of 60 crore) underlines its inherent inadequacy. Many surveys thrive on much smaller sample sizes! Second, the sample can't be truly representative, especially in a humungous and heterogeneous society like India. Third, opinion polls are conducted well before the polls and their remoteness in time affects their predictive utility. Several recent polls have quoted widely divergent figures and this reflects their untenability. Nevertheless, they inexorably influence the voter and create an uneven playing field.
Question - 3.
How can we have free and fair polls in our democracy?
Direction(1 - 10):Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The chaos and cacophony of elections is the surest sign of a vibrant democracy. What role do opinion and exit polls play in this democratic process? A non-partisan debate on this issue must underscore the qualitative difference between opinion polls and exit polls and the differing impact each has on the democratic process. Opinion polls are sample surveys, reporting statistical results of potential future behaviour by voters who answer certain questions. An opinion poll is always conducted before a voter has exercised his franchise, usually several days or weeks before voting. It usually asks more than one question. An exit poll is conducted upon a voter who has already voted. It involves no questions and seeks to report how a voter has voted.
Keeping this difference in mind, there are several reasons for banning exit polls and an arguable, though weaker, case for banning opinion polls. Democracy is the bedrock of our nation and of the Constitution. A republican secular democratic nation has been held by the apex court to be part of the basic structure of the Constitution. Free and fair elections have also been held judicially to be part of this basic structure. This means free and fair polls are an unamendable, inalienable feature of our Constitution.
In turn, free and fair elections necessitate a level playing field where the contestants and voters are not subjected to unfair external influences which vitiate the process of elections. The Representation of People Act (RPA) and the Model Code of Conduct, along with several other rules, are all designed to ensure this essential fairness in the electoral process.
In a multi - phased electoral contest - and the exit polls ban argument is relevant only in multi - phased polls - the exit poll results of a prior poll have a direct impact on the next poll. For example, the present polls are scheduled for April 20, 26, May 5 and 10. An exit poll publication for April 20 suggesting heavy voting for Party A is bound to create an overall ambience of victory in favour of that party. Such predeclaration of exit poll results often leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Party A may have strong support in the April 20 polls but may normally be a miserable loser in all the next three phases. However, an ambience in its favour qua the April 20 polls may generate a 'herd instinct' or 'bandwagon effect' amid voters to follow the likely 'winner' of the first phase.
This may itself not be pernicious if the April 20 exit poll results reflected the complete reality. But exit poll results are based on fractional samples, generalising from 'miniaturised reality'. Since they do not even claim to represent the whole truth, their impact on future polls is bound to distort the electoral process. Vitiation of democracy and violation of the basic structure is a likely consequence.
Opinion polls are worse because they generalise not from actual behaviour but from presumed and predicted behaviour. The fractional size of the sample (e.g. 40,000 in an Indian electorate of 60 crore) underlines its inherent inadequacy. Many surveys thrive on much smaller sample sizes! Second, the sample can't be truly representative, especially in a humungous and heterogeneous society like India. Third, opinion polls are conducted well before the polls and their remoteness in time affects their predictive utility. Several recent polls have quoted widely divergent figures and this reflects their untenability. Nevertheless, they inexorably influence the voter and create an uneven playing field.
Question - 4.
In what condition would the talk of banning exit polls be meaningless?
Direction(1 - 10):Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The chaos and cacophony of elections is the surest sign of a vibrant democracy. What role do opinion and exit polls play in this democratic process? A non-partisan debate on this issue must underscore the qualitative difference between opinion polls and exit polls and the differing impact each has on the democratic process. Opinion polls are sample surveys, reporting statistical results of potential future behaviour by voters who answer certain questions. An opinion poll is always conducted before a voter has exercised his franchise, usually several days or weeks before voting. It usually asks more than one question. An exit poll is conducted upon a voter who has already voted. It involves no questions and seeks to report how a voter has voted.
Keeping this difference in mind, there are several reasons for banning exit polls and an arguable, though weaker, case for banning opinion polls. Democracy is the bedrock of our nation and of the Constitution. A republican secular democratic nation has been held by the apex court to be part of the basic structure of the Constitution. Free and fair elections have also been held judicially to be part of this basic structure. This means free and fair polls are an unamendable, inalienable feature of our Constitution.
In turn, free and fair elections necessitate a level playing field where the contestants and voters are not subjected to unfair external influences which vitiate the process of elections. The Representation of People Act (RPA) and the Model Code of Conduct, along with several other rules, are all designed to ensure this essential fairness in the electoral process.
In a multi - phased electoral contest - and the exit polls ban argument is relevant only in multi - phased polls - the exit poll results of a prior poll have a direct impact on the next poll. For example, the present polls are scheduled for April 20, 26, May 5 and 10. An exit poll publication for April 20 suggesting heavy voting for Party A is bound to create an overall ambience of victory in favour of that party. Such predeclaration of exit poll results often leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Party A may have strong support in the April 20 polls but may normally be a miserable loser in all the next three phases. However, an ambience in its favour qua the April 20 polls may generate a 'herd instinct' or 'bandwagon effect' amid voters to follow the likely 'winner' of the first phase.
This may itself not be pernicious if the April 20 exit poll results reflected the complete reality. But exit poll results are based on fractional samples, generalising from 'miniaturised reality'. Since they do not even claim to represent the whole truth, their impact on future polls is bound to distort the electoral process. Vitiation of democracy and violation of the basic structure is a likely consequence.
Opinion polls are worse because they generalise not from actual behaviour but from presumed and predicted behaviour. The fractional size of the sample (e.g. 40,000 in an Indian electorate of 60 crore) underlines its inherent inadequacy. Many surveys thrive on much smaller sample sizes! Second, the sample can't be truly representative, especially in a humungous and heterogeneous society like India. Third, opinion polls are conducted well before the polls and their remoteness in time affects their predictive utility. Several recent polls have quoted widely divergent figures and this reflects their untenability. Nevertheless, they inexorably influence the voter and create an uneven playing field.
Question - 5.
Which of the following is 'true' in the context of the passage?
Direction(1 - 10):Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The chaos and cacophony of elections is the surest sign of a vibrant democracy. What role do opinion and exit polls play in this democratic process? A non-partisan debate on this issue must underscore the qualitative difference between opinion polls and exit polls and the differing impact each has on the democratic process. Opinion polls are sample surveys, reporting statistical results of potential future behaviour by voters who answer certain questions. An opinion poll is always conducted before a voter has exercised his franchise, usually several days or weeks before voting. It usually asks more than one question. An exit poll is conducted upon a voter who has already voted. It involves no questions and seeks to report how a voter has voted.
Keeping this difference in mind, there are several reasons for banning exit polls and an arguable, though weaker, case for banning opinion polls. Democracy is the bedrock of our nation and of the Constitution. A republican secular democratic nation has been held by the apex court to be part of the basic structure of the Constitution. Free and fair elections have also been held judicially to be part of this basic structure. This means free and fair polls are an unamendable, inalienable feature of our Constitution.
In turn, free and fair elections necessitate a level playing field where the contestants and voters are not subjected to unfair external influences which vitiate the process of elections. The Representation of People Act (RPA) and the Model Code of Conduct, along with several other rules, are all designed to ensure this essential fairness in the electoral process.
In a multi - phased electoral contest - and the exit polls ban argument is relevant only in multi - phased polls - the exit poll results of a prior poll have a direct impact on the next poll. For example, the present polls are scheduled for April 20, 26, May 5 and 10. An exit poll publication for April 20 suggesting heavy voting for Party A is bound to create an overall ambience of victory in favour of that party. Such predeclaration of exit poll results often leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Party A may have strong support in the April 20 polls but may normally be a miserable loser in all the next three phases. However, an ambience in its favour qua the April 20 polls may generate a 'herd instinct' or 'bandwagon effect' amid voters to follow the likely 'winner' of the first phase.
This may itself not be pernicious if the April 20 exit poll results reflected the complete reality. But exit poll results are based on fractional samples, generalising from 'miniaturised reality'. Since they do not even claim to represent the whole truth, their impact on future polls is bound to distort the electoral process. Vitiation of democracy and violation of the basic structure is a likely consequence.
Opinion polls are worse because they generalise not from actual behaviour but from presumed and predicted behaviour. The fractional size of the sample (e.g. 40,000 in an Indian electorate of 60 crore) underlines its inherent inadequacy. Many surveys thrive on much smaller sample sizes! Second, the sample can't be truly representative, especially in a humungous and heterogeneous society like India. Third, opinion polls are conducted well before the polls and their remoteness in time affects their predictive utility. Several recent polls have quoted widely divergent figures and this reflects their untenability. Nevertheless, they inexorably influence the voter and create an uneven playing field.
Question - 6.
According to the author, opinion polls are more harmful than exit polls because
Direction(1 - 10):Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The chaos and cacophony of elections is the surest sign of a vibrant democracy. What role do opinion and exit polls play in this democratic process? A non-partisan debate on this issue must underscore the qualitative difference between opinion polls and exit polls and the differing impact each has on the democratic process. Opinion polls are sample surveys, reporting statistical results of potential future behaviour by voters who answer certain questions. An opinion poll is always conducted before a voter has exercised his franchise, usually several days or weeks before voting. It usually asks more than one question. An exit poll is conducted upon a voter who has already voted. It involves no questions and seeks to report how a voter has voted.
Keeping this difference in mind, there are several reasons for banning exit polls and an arguable, though weaker, case for banning opinion polls. Democracy is the bedrock of our nation and of the Constitution. A republican secular democratic nation has been held by the apex court to be part of the basic structure of the Constitution. Free and fair elections have also been held judicially to be part of this basic structure. This means free and fair polls are an unamendable, inalienable feature of our Constitution.
In turn, free and fair elections necessitate a level playing field where the contestants and voters are not subjected to unfair external influences which vitiate the process of elections. The Representation of People Act (RPA) and the Model Code of Conduct, along with several other rules, are all designed to ensure this essential fairness in the electoral process.
In a multi - phased electoral contest - and the exit polls ban argument is relevant only in multi - phased polls - the exit poll results of a prior poll have a direct impact on the next poll. For example, the present polls are scheduled for April 20, 26, May 5 and 10. An exit poll publication for April 20 suggesting heavy voting for Party A is bound to create an overall ambience of victory in favour of that party. Such predeclaration of exit poll results often leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Party A may have strong support in the April 20 polls but may normally be a miserable loser in all the next three phases. However, an ambience in its favour qua the April 20 polls may generate a 'herd instinct' or 'bandwagon effect' amid voters to follow the likely 'winner' of the first phase.
This may itself not be pernicious if the April 20 exit poll results reflected the complete reality. But exit poll results are based on fractional samples, generalising from 'miniaturised reality'. Since they do not even claim to represent the whole truth, their impact on future polls is bound to distort the electoral process. Vitiation of democracy and violation of the basic structure is a likely consequence.
Opinion polls are worse because they generalise not from actual behaviour but from presumed and predicted behaviour. The fractional size of the sample (e.g. 40,000 in an Indian electorate of 60 crore) underlines its inherent inadequacy. Many surveys thrive on much smaller sample sizes! Second, the sample can't be truly representative, especially in a humungous and heterogeneous society like India. Third, opinion polls are conducted well before the polls and their remoteness in time affects their predictive utility. Several recent polls have quoted widely divergent figures and this reflects their untenability. Nevertheless, they inexorably influence the voter and create an uneven playing field.
Question - 7.
What is the central message behind this passage?
Direction(1 - 10):Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The chaos and cacophony of elections is the surest sign of a vibrant democracy. What role do opinion and exit polls play in this democratic process? A non-partisan debate on this issue must underscore the qualitative difference between opinion polls and exit polls and the differing impact each has on the democratic process. Opinion polls are sample surveys, reporting statistical results of potential future behaviour by voters who answer certain questions. An opinion poll is always conducted before a voter has exercised his franchise, usually several days or weeks before voting. It usually asks more than one question. An exit poll is conducted upon a voter who has already voted. It involves no questions and seeks to report how a voter has voted.
Keeping this difference in mind, there are several reasons for banning exit polls and an arguable, though weaker, case for banning opinion polls. Democracy is the bedrock of our nation and of the Constitution. A republican secular democratic nation has been held by the apex court to be part of the basic structure of the Constitution. Free and fair elections have also been held judicially to be part of this basic structure. This means free and fair polls are an unamendable, inalienable feature of our Constitution.
In turn, free and fair elections necessitate a level playing field where the contestants and voters are not subjected to unfair external influences which vitiate the process of elections. The Representation of People Act (RPA) and the Model Code of Conduct, along with several other rules, are all designed to ensure this essential fairness in the electoral process.
In a multi - phased electoral contest - and the exit polls ban argument is relevant only in multi - phased polls - the exit poll results of a prior poll have a direct impact on the next poll. For example, the present polls are scheduled for April 20, 26, May 5 and 10. An exit poll publication for April 20 suggesting heavy voting for Party A is bound to create an overall ambience of victory in favour of that party. Such predeclaration of exit poll results often leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Party A may have strong support in the April 20 polls but may normally be a miserable loser in all the next three phases. However, an ambience in its favour qua the April 20 polls may generate a 'herd instinct' or 'bandwagon effect' amid voters to follow the likely 'winner' of the first phase.
This may itself not be pernicious if the April 20 exit poll results reflected the complete reality. But exit poll results are based on fractional samples, generalising from 'miniaturised reality'. Since they do not even claim to represent the whole truth, their impact on future polls is bound to distort the electoral process. Vitiation of democracy and violation of the basic structure is a likely consequence.
Opinion polls are worse because they generalise not from actual behaviour but from presumed and predicted behaviour. The fractional size of the sample (e.g. 40,000 in an Indian electorate of 60 crore) underlines its inherent inadequacy. Many surveys thrive on much smaller sample sizes! Second, the sample can't be truly representative, especially in a humungous and heterogeneous society like India. Third, opinion polls are conducted well before the polls and their remoteness in time affects their predictive utility. Several recent polls have quoted widely divergent figures and this reflects their untenability. Nevertheless, they inexorably influence the voter and create an uneven playing field.
Question - 8.
Choose the word which is the same in meaning as the word given in bold as used in the
passage.
PROPHECY
Direction(1 - 10):Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The chaos and cacophony of elections is the surest sign of a vibrant democracy. What role do opinion and exit polls play in this democratic process? A non-partisan debate on this issue must underscore the qualitative difference between opinion polls and exit polls and the differing impact each has on the democratic process. Opinion polls are sample surveys, reporting statistical results of potential future behaviour by voters who answer certain questions. An opinion poll is always conducted before a voter has exercised his franchise, usually several days or weeks before voting. It usually asks more than one question. An exit poll is conducted upon a voter who has already voted. It involves no questions and seeks to report how a voter has voted.
Keeping this difference in mind, there are several reasons for banning exit polls and an arguable, though weaker, case for banning opinion polls. Democracy is the bedrock of our nation and of the Constitution. A republican secular democratic nation has been held by the apex court to be part of the basic structure of the Constitution. Free and fair elections have also been held judicially to be part of this basic structure. This means free and fair polls are an unamendable, inalienable feature of our Constitution.
In turn, free and fair elections necessitate a level playing field where the contestants and voters are not subjected to unfair external influences which vitiate the process of elections. The Representation of People Act (RPA) and the Model Code of Conduct, along with several other rules, are all designed to ensure this essential fairness in the electoral process.
In a multi - phased electoral contest - and the exit polls ban argument is relevant only in multi - phased polls - the exit poll results of a prior poll have a direct impact on the next poll. For example, the present polls are scheduled for April 20, 26, May 5 and 10. An exit poll publication for April 20 suggesting heavy voting for Party A is bound to create an overall ambience of victory in favour of that party. Such predeclaration of exit poll results often leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Party A may have strong support in the April 20 polls but may normally be a miserable loser in all the next three phases. However, an ambience in its favour qua the April 20 polls may generate a 'herd instinct' or 'bandwagon effect' amid voters to follow the likely 'winner' of the first phase.
This may itself not be pernicious if the April 20 exit poll results reflected the complete reality. But exit poll results are based on fractional samples, generalising from 'miniaturised reality'. Since they do not even claim to represent the whole truth, their impact on future polls is bound to distort the electoral process. Vitiation of democracy and violation of the basic structure is a likely consequence.
Opinion polls are worse because they generalise not from actual behaviour but from presumed and predicted behaviour. The fractional size of the sample (e.g. 40,000 in an Indian electorate of 60 crore) underlines its inherent inadequacy. Many surveys thrive on much smaller sample sizes! Second, the sample can't be truly representative, especially in a humungous and heterogeneous society like India. Third, opinion polls are conducted well before the polls and their remoteness in time affects their predictive utility. Several recent polls have quoted widely divergent figures and this reflects their untenability. Nevertheless, they inexorably influence the voter and create an uneven playing field.
Question - 9.
Choose the word which is the same in meaning as the word given in bold as used in the
passage.
PERNICIOUS
Direction(1 - 10):Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The chaos and cacophony of elections is the surest sign of a vibrant democracy. What role do opinion and exit polls play in this democratic process? A non-partisan debate on this issue must underscore the qualitative difference between opinion polls and exit polls and the differing impact each has on the democratic process. Opinion polls are sample surveys, reporting statistical results of potential future behaviour by voters who answer certain questions. An opinion poll is always conducted before a voter has exercised his franchise, usually several days or weeks before voting. It usually asks more than one question. An exit poll is conducted upon a voter who has already voted. It involves no questions and seeks to report how a voter has voted.
Keeping this difference in mind, there are several reasons for banning exit polls and an arguable, though weaker, case for banning opinion polls. Democracy is the bedrock of our nation and of the Constitution. A republican secular democratic nation has been held by the apex court to be part of the basic structure of the Constitution. Free and fair elections have also been held judicially to be part of this basic structure. This means free and fair polls are an unamendable, inalienable feature of our Constitution.
In turn, free and fair elections necessitate a level playing field where the contestants and voters are not subjected to unfair external influences which vitiate the process of elections. The Representation of People Act (RPA) and the Model Code of Conduct, along with several other rules, are all designed to ensure this essential fairness in the electoral process.
In a multi - phased electoral contest - and the exit polls ban argument is relevant only in multi - phased polls - the exit poll results of a prior poll have a direct impact on the next poll. For example, the present polls are scheduled for April 20, 26, May 5 and 10. An exit poll publication for April 20 suggesting heavy voting for Party A is bound to create an overall ambience of victory in favour of that party. Such predeclaration of exit poll results often leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy. Party A may have strong support in the April 20 polls but may normally be a miserable loser in all the next three phases. However, an ambience in its favour qua the April 20 polls may generate a 'herd instinct' or 'bandwagon effect' amid voters to follow the likely 'winner' of the first phase.
This may itself not be pernicious if the April 20 exit poll results reflected the complete reality. But exit poll results are based on fractional samples, generalising from 'miniaturised reality'. Since they do not even claim to represent the whole truth, their impact on future polls is bound to distort the electoral process. Vitiation of democracy and violation of the basic structure is a likely consequence.
Opinion polls are worse because they generalise not from actual behaviour but from presumed and predicted behaviour. The fractional size of the sample (e.g. 40,000 in an Indian electorate of 60 crore) underlines its inherent inadequacy. Many surveys thrive on much smaller sample sizes! Second, the sample can't be truly representative, especially in a humungous and heterogeneous society like India. Third, opinion polls are conducted well before the polls and their remoteness in time affects their predictive utility. Several recent polls have quoted widely divergent figures and this reflects their untenability. Nevertheless, they inexorably influence the voter and create an uneven playing field.
Question - 10.
Choose the word which is the same in meaning as the word given in bold as used in the
passage.
INEXORABLY
Direction(11 - 15):In each of the following sentences there are two blank spaces. Below each sentence there are five pairs of words denoted by numbers a), b), c), d) and e). Find out which pair of words can be filled up in the blanks in the sentence in the same sequence to make it meaningfully complete.
Question - 11.
Autonomy in investigation and prosecution would _____judicial disposals and restore_____ in the rule of law
Direction(11 - 15):In each of the following sentences there are two blank spaces. Below each sentence there are five pairs of words denoted by numbers a), b), c), d) and e). Find out which pair of words can be filled up in the blanks in the sentence in the same sequence to make it meaningfully complete.
Question - 12.
The highest court of this country has always gone out to _____ the _____ of the citizenry.
Direction(11 - 15):In each of the following sentences there are two blank spaces. Below each sentence there are five pairs of words denoted by numbers a), b), c), d) and e). Find out which pair of words can be filled up in the blanks in the sentence in the same sequence to make it meaningfully complete.
Question - 13.
_____of illiteracy from a nation that is set to become the most populated in the world is by no ______ easy.
Direction(11 - 15):In each of the following sentences there are two blank spaces. Below each sentence there are five pairs of words denoted by numbers a), b), c), d) and e). Find out which pair of words can be filled up in the blanks in the sentence in the same sequence to make it meaningfully complete.
Question - 14.
This approach would _____ the enormous illiteracy problem to be _______ in a holistic manner.
Direction(11 - 15):In each of the following sentences there are two blank spaces. Below each sentence there are five pairs of words denoted by numbers a), b), c), d) and e). Find out which pair of words can be filled up in the blanks in the sentence in the same sequence to make it meaningfully complete.
Question - 15.
It is time to ______ ongoing programmes and ______ new horizons.
Direction(16 - 25):In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate words.
Since the (16) of planning in our country, continuous (17) has been laid on (18) distribution of income as a broad (19). As (20) of poverty was higher in the rural areas, where majority of the population lives, it was considered (21) to shift the (22) of poverty (23) programmes to the rural areas. But, despite several programmes being (24) by the government, it was (25) towards the end of Fifth Five Year Plan that fruits of development had failed to trickle down to the poorer sections living in the rural areas.
Question - 16.
Choose appropriate word to fill the blank.
Direction(16 - 25):In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate words.
Since the (16) of planning in our country, continuous (17) has been laid on (18) distribution of income as a broad (19). As (20) of poverty was higher in the rural areas, where majority of the population lives, it was considered (21) to shift the (22) of poverty (23) programmes to the rural areas. But, despite several programmes being (24) by the government, it was (25) towards the end of Fifth Five Year Plan that fruits of development had failed to trickle down to the poorer sections living in the rural areas.
Question - 17.
Choose appropriate word to fill the blank.
Direction(16 - 25):In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate words.
Since the (16) of planning in our country, continuous (17) has been laid on (18) distribution of income as a broad (19). As (20) of poverty was higher in the rural areas, where majority of the population lives, it was considered (21) to shift the (22) of poverty (23) programmes to the rural areas. But, despite several programmes being (24) by the government, it was (25) towards the end of Fifth Five Year Plan that fruits of development had failed to trickle down to the poorer sections living in the rural areas.
Question - 18.
Choose appropriate word to fill the blank.
Direction(16 - 25):In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate words.
Since the (16) of planning in our country, continuous (17) has been laid on (18) distribution of income as a broad (19). As (20) of poverty was higher in the rural areas, where majority of the population lives, it was considered (21) to shift the (22) of poverty (23) programmes to the rural areas. But, despite several programmes being (24) by the government, it was (25) towards the end of Fifth Five Year Plan that fruits of development had failed to trickle down to the poorer sections living in the rural areas.
Question - 19.
Choose appropriate word to fill the blank.
Direction(16 - 25):In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate words.
Since the (16) of planning in our country, continuous (17) has been laid on (18) distribution of income as a broad (19). As (20) of poverty was higher in the rural areas, where majority of the population lives, it was considered (21) to shift the (22) of poverty (23) programmes to the rural areas. But, despite several programmes being (24) by the government, it was (25) towards the end of Fifth Five Year Plan that fruits of development had failed to trickle down to the poorer sections living in the rural areas.
Question - 20.
Choose appropriate word to fill the blank.
Direction(16 - 25):In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate words.
Since the (16) of planning in our country, continuous (17) has been laid on (18) distribution of income as a broad (19). As (20) of poverty was higher in the rural areas, where majority of the population lives, it was considered (21) to shift the (22) of poverty (23) programmes to the rural areas. But, despite several programmes being (24) by the government, it was (25) towards the end of Fifth Five Year Plan that fruits of development had failed to trickle down to the poorer sections living in the rural areas.
Question - 21.
Choose appropriate word to fill the blank.
Direction(16 - 25):In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate words.
Since the (16) of planning in our country, continuous (17) has been laid on (18) distribution of income as a broad (19). As (20) of poverty was higher in the rural areas, where majority of the population lives, it was considered (21) to shift the (22) of poverty (23) programmes to the rural areas. But, despite several programmes being (24) by the government, it was (25) towards the end of Fifth Five Year Plan that fruits of development had failed to trickle down to the poorer sections living in the rural areas.
Question - 22.
Choose appropriate word to fill the blank.
Direction(16 - 25):In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate words.
Since the (16) of planning in our country, continuous (17) has been laid on (18) distribution of income as a broad (19). As (20) of poverty was higher in the rural areas, where majority of the population lives, it was considered (21) to shift the (22) of poverty (23) programmes to the rural areas. But, despite several programmes being (24) by the government, it was (25) towards the end of Fifth Five Year Plan that fruits of development had failed to trickle down to the poorer sections living in the rural areas.
Question - 23.
Choose appropriate word to fill the blank.
Direction(16 - 25):In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate words.
Since the (16) of planning in our country, continuous (17) has been laid on (18) distribution of income as a broad (19). As (20) of poverty was higher in the rural areas, where majority of the population lives, it was considered (21) to shift the (22) of poverty (23) programmes to the rural areas. But, despite several programmes being (24) by the government, it was (25) towards the end of Fifth Five Year Plan that fruits of development had failed to trickle down to the poorer sections living in the rural areas.
Question - 24.
Choose appropriate word to fill the blank.
Direction(16 - 25):In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate words.
Since the (16) of planning in our country, continuous (17) has been laid on (18) distribution of income as a broad (19). As (20) of poverty was higher in the rural areas, where majority of the population lives, it was considered (21) to shift the (22) of poverty (23) programmes to the rural areas. But, despite several programmes being (24) by the government, it was (25) towards the end of Fifth Five Year Plan that fruits of development had failed to trickle down to the poorer sections living in the rural areas.
Question - 25.
Choose appropriate word to fill the blank.
Direction(26 - 30):Rearrange the following five sentences (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.
(A) In such cases, services may get affected immediately, as the links to ATMs, POS or other electronic networks are brought down.
(B) As the system go out of action, the damaging effects on banking services increase rapidly.
(C) The consequential costs of a serious systems failure, therefore, can far exceed the costs of replacing damaged equipment, data or software.
(D) Particularly damaging effect is on the environments wherein IT is being used for on-online, real-time processing.
(E) An insufficient processing capacity to cope with the additional load may also lead to a suspension of the banking facility unless adequate contingency plans have been specified and tested beforehand.
Question - 26.
Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement?
Direction(26 - 30):Rearrange the following five sentences (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.
(A) In such cases, services may get affected immediately, as the links to ATMs, POS or other electronic networks are brought down.
(B) As the system go out of action, the damaging effects on banking services increase rapidly.
(C) The consequential costs of a serious systems failure, therefore, can far exceed the costs of replacing damaged equipment, data or software.
(D) Particularly damaging effect is on the environments wherein IT is being used for on-online, real-time processing.
(E) An insufficient processing capacity to cope with the additional load may also lead to a suspension of the banking facility unless adequate contingency plans have been specified and tested beforehand.
Question - 27.
Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after rearrangement?
Direction(26 - 30):Rearrange the following five sentences (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.
(A) In such cases, services may get affected immediately, as the links to ATMs, POS or other electronic networks are brought down.
(B) As the system go out of action, the damaging effects on banking services increase rapidly.
(C) The consequential costs of a serious systems failure, therefore, can far exceed the costs of replacing damaged equipment, data or software.
(D) Particularly damaging effect is on the environments wherein IT is being used for on-online, real-time processing.
(E) An insufficient processing capacity to cope with the additional load may also lead to a suspension of the banking facility unless adequate contingency plans have been specified and tested beforehand.
Question - 28.
Which of the following should be the THIRD sentence after rearrangement?
Direction(26 - 30):Rearrange the following five sentences (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.
(A) In such cases, services may get affected immediately, as the links to ATMs, POS or other electronic networks are brought down.
(B) As the system go out of action, the damaging effects on banking services increase rapidly.
(C) The consequential costs of a serious systems failure, therefore, can far exceed the costs of replacing damaged equipment, data or software.
(D) Particularly damaging effect is on the environments wherein IT is being used for on-online, real-time processing.
(E) An insufficient processing capacity to cope with the additional load may also lead to a suspension of the banking facility unless adequate contingency plans have been specified and tested beforehand.
Question - 29.
Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after rearrangement?
Direction(26 - 30):Rearrange the following five sentences (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.
(A) In such cases, services may get affected immediately, as the links to ATMs, POS or other electronic networks are brought down.
(B) As the system go out of action, the damaging effects on banking services increase rapidly.
(C) The consequential costs of a serious systems failure, therefore, can far exceed the costs of replacing damaged equipment, data or software.
(D) Particularly damaging effect is on the environments wherein IT is being used for on-online, real-time processing.
(E) An insufficient processing capacity to cope with the additional load may also lead to a suspension of the banking facility unless adequate contingency plans have been specified and tested beforehand.
Question - 30.
Which of the following should be the LAST (FIFTH) sentence after rearrangement?
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